Basic Facts On High Blood Pressure and Low Blood Pressure

High blood pressure or hypertension is a condition in which a person’s blood. pressure is higher than normal of 140/90 mm-Hg.

Hypertension is established after three consecutive readings of the blood pressure .

The onset is slow and may not present with symptoms at the early time.

It can damage arteries and body organs like the heart and kidney.

It increases the risk of stroke six times and heart attack three times.

It is a silent killer.

It affects both males and females but more in males than females

It is a lifelong condition, not cured but controlled

It is not caused by evil spirits.

What is the normal blood pressure?
The acceptable range is 100-139/60-89 mmHg

But World Health Organization states normal as 140/90 mm Hg.
Levels of Hypertension

Mild hypertension: 141-149/91-99 mmHg

Moderate: 150-179/100-109 mmHg

Severe:180/110mmHg and above.

Types and causes of Hypertension
There are two main types; Essential and Secondary hypertension

Essential Hypertension:
The cause is unknown but attributted to Heredity ( from parents to offsprings)

Overweight due to over eating.
Stress or poor emotional well-being.
Excessive alcohol intake.
Tobacco use.
Intake of foods high in fats and salt.

Secondary/Organic Hypertension
  • The cause is due to disease conditons such as:
  • Kidney diseases
  • Healt valve problems
  • Over-activity of the thyroid or pituitary gland
  • Effects of drugs.
Signs/Symtoms of the Disease

There may not be signs and symptoms at the onset,but later the following begin to present.

  • Occasional headache
  • Palpitation.
  • Blurred vision
  • Dizziness etc.
  • Uncontrolled hypertension can cause harm to internal organs resulting in
  • Heart damage(heart failure)
  • Kidney damage.
  • Blindness
  • Stroke
  • Coma and death
How to prevent,control and manage the condition.
  • This involves life style charge strategy to:
  • Reduce weight.
  • Reduce alcohol intake.
  • Stop smoking
  • Eat more of fruits and vegetables.
  • Take drugs for life
  • Adhere to doctors instruction on dosage of drugs because drug overdose causes hypotension and death.
HYPOTENSION (Low Blood Pressure)

This is a condition in which the blood pressure is abnormally low (Low BP) less than 90/60mmHg.
Causes include:

  • Excessive blood loss(hemorrhage) or fluid loss eg diarrhea,vomiting,burns etc.
  • Death of part of the heart due to loss of oxygen(myocardial infarction).
  • Blockage of the Pulmonary artery by blood clot.
  • Severe infection,allergic reactions,acute abdomen.
  • Severe starvation.
  • Drugs overdose of BP drugs.
  • Faint attack (syncope)
  • Positon when rising from a horizontal position(orthostatic hypotension).
  • However it becomes a problem if noticeable symptoms present.
Signs and symptoms.
  • Light headedness.
  • Impaired consciousness in severe cases.
  • Unrecordable BP.
  • Weak pulse.
  • Suppression of urine production.
What to do in Low BP.
  • If conscious do any of the following
  • Chew 5-6 seeds of alligator pepper (Oseoji) or
  • Drink a cup of coffee or
  • Drink a bottle of sprite or
  • 7UP containing a pinch of salt.
  • Seek immediate medical help for specific treatment of the condition

Effects of Low BP


  • Severe damage to the heart and kidney which results in death.

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