WHAT IS DIABETES MELLITUS
Diabetes is a disorder of the carbohydrate and fat metabolism in which sugar in the body do not enter the body cells to produce energy,due to lack,insufficient or inactive insulin in the body.The accumulation of sugar leads to its rise in blood and appearance in urine.
Insulin is a hormone( biologic chemical) produced by the pancreas that controls sugar in the body.
TYPES OF DIABETES
– It occurs in childhood and adolescence but can occur at any age
– Onset is acute (sudden,developing over a period of few days to weeks).2. Type 2 (Non insulin dependent or maturity onset)– Insulin produced is either very little or ineffective.
– It accounts for the majority of cases,90-95%.
-Usually occurs after the age of 40,but can develop anytime in the adult.
-Onset is gradual,developing over a period of years.
-It is developed as a result of the genetic and environmental factors.
3. Gestational diabetes (pregnancy Induced)
– This type is associated with pregnancy and diasppears within 6 weeks of delivery,but may reappear in later life.
Major risk factors of diabetes
The factors that contribute to its development include:-
Older age,more than 45years.
Women with history of gestational diabetes.
History of impaired glucose tolerance or fasting glucose.
Sign and Symptoms
– Frequent urination (Polyuria)
– Excessive thirst (Polydipsia)
– Excessive eating(Polyphagia).
– Weight loss despite good appetite
– Itching of the vulva in women.
– Invasion by ants of the urine recently passed.
– Foot ulcer or sepsis.
– Weakness and tiredness.
– There may be no symptoms as some patients are picked up by chance during routine investigation.
Management and Control
Dibetes mellitus is not cured but controlled.Treatment aims at maintaining glucose level within normal range without too many swings (high or low).
– Some are controlled by diets only while others may require drug therapy .
– Diet high in fruits and vegetables,low fat and graduated complex carbohydrates.
– Avoid refined sugars like table sugar,sweets,biscuits, etc.
– Report sign/symptoms to the doctor.
– Adhere to medical advice as regards drugs and food.
– Check fasting blood sugar every 6 months to one year
– Reduce weight,do exercise.
Visual impairment which may lead to blindness.
Negative effect on nerves to various parts of the body
Cataracts eye lens does not allow light to pass through.
Coma and death.